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In addition to traditional academic institutions, many psychometricians work for the government or in human resources departments.Others specialize as learning and development professionals.For example, methods based on covariance matrices are typically employed on the premise that numbers, such as raw scores derived from assessments, are measurements.Such approaches implicitly entail Stevens's definition of measurement, which requires only that numbers are assigned according to some rule.Galton, often referred to as "the father of psychometrics," devised and included mental tests among his anthropometric measures.James Mc Keen Cattell, who is considered a pioneer of psychometrics went on to extend Galton's work.Measurement of these unobservable phenomena is difficult, and much of the research and accumulated science in this discipline has been developed in an attempt to properly define and quantify such phenomena. Thurstone, Anne Anastasi, Georg Rasch, Eugene Galanter, Johnson O'Connor, Frederic M.
The committee's report highlighted the importance of the definition of measurement.
Cattell also coined the term mental test, and is responsible for the research and knowledge which ultimately led to the development of modern tests.
(Kaplan & Saccuzzo, 2010) The origin of psychometrics also has connections to the related field of psychophysics. Fechner expanded upon the knowledge he gleaned from Herbart and Weber, to devise the law that the strength of a sensation grows as the logarithm of the stimulus intensity.
Psychological testing has come from two streams of thought: the first, from Darwin, Galton, and Cattell on the measurement of individual differences, and the second, from Herbart, Weber, Fechner, and Wundt and their psychophysical measurements of a similar construct.
The second set of individuals and their research is what has led to the development of experimental psychology, and standardized testing.